Un habitat(2016) defined informal settlement as a residential areas

Un
habitat(2016) defined informal settlement as a residential areas where
inhabitants have no security of tenure vis-a-vis the land or dwellings they
inhabit, with modalities ranging from squatting to informal rental housing ,the
neighborhoods usually lack or are cut off from basic services and city
infrastructure and the housing may not comply with current planning
regulations.Johannessen et al(2014)add on that ,one of the largest risks to
people living in informal settlements is lack of improved water and sanitation.
A majority of households without access to household connection are those
living in informal settlements and majority are low income (WSP, 2003).

Compared
with rural areas informal settlements are more prominent in urban areas where
there is rapid urbanization(Cohen,2006).In Kigali much of urban growth is
happening in an unplanned manner and the city now accommodate 62,6% of the
population in informal settlements (Tsinda etal,2013).The world bank(2006)
estimates that two thirds of population in Lagos Nigeria lives in informal
settlements which are scattered around the city.Capetown project centre(2014)
argues that water and sanitation are critical aspects of any community but severely
lack in informal settlements. Often, informal settlement settlers who live on
the outskirts of urban areas on unplanned find themselves without a connection
to local networks. These settlements are not even recognized by policy or
municipal authorities because of tenure issues (Wateraid, 2006).According to
Golding (2010) regarding sustainable access to water Africa has the least water
and sanitation coverage in the world. In Daar se salaam, Lusaka and Blantyre an
estimated 70% of the city is informal and Nairobi it is estimated that 55% of
the population reside in informal settlements that lack basic infrastructure (WPS,
2003).

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Zimbabwe
is not immune to these problems of shortage of water and sanitation in informal
settlements. Chirisa (2012) argues that spatially informality is not confined
to the Central business district but rather it manifest itself by bursting at
the city ‘s seams .Whilst Nhapi (2012) alludes 
that water and sanitation services in Zimbabwe ‘s informal settlements
are normally absent or missing. A major challenge that these informal
settlements is the lack of access to adequate sanitation in comparison which
are serviced by local authorizes(World Bank 2013).Gukume (2012)argues that
informal settlements are perpetually overlooked in the provision of basic
services and amenities in that most if not all urban areas in Zimbabwe and
other countries.

Water supply and sanitation

A
larger proportion of human population in many regions in the world and in
African to be specific faces challenges of accessing safe water to drink and sanitation
(Manzungu Et al, 2016). This is mainly attributed to the growing numbers of
people migrating to peri-urban areas where municipal services are non-existent.
Many African countries are failing to meet sustainable goal number six which is
about clean water and sanitation for all. There are larger disparities in the
provision of safe water and sanitation in the world. With Sub-Sahara having the
lowest coverage of piped water among world regions (WHO, 2010).Limited access
to water translate to high incidents of water related diseases. The lack of
water and sanitation in this region has also affected the economy and the
livelihoods of Africans. The lack of proper sanitation and water in Africa
translate to loss of revenue and ability to generate lively hoods .In addition
,the time and energy is lost in hauling water from long distance predominantly
undertaken by women and girls deprives them of the time to engage in livelihood
generating activities and attending school.

In
Zimbabwe water supplies in new urban settlements are not yet connected to
municipal water supply it has become a common phenomenon for new settlements to
be developed without proper infrastructure. Whilst water supply in  older residential settlements is erratic
because of dilapidated  pipes and other
infrastructure problems(World bank ,2017).Harare city water carters for neighboring
towns of Chitungwiza ,Epworth and Ruwa(Manzungu ,2016).

Nature of self help facilities

As
a result of rapid urbanization coupled with economic constraints ,majority of
urban residents live in informal settlements characterized by lack of basic
services.Concequntly the urban poor often use inexpensive pit latrines and the
same time draw domestic water from nearby wells. Overcrowding in informal settlements
limits the adequate distance between wells and latrines so that micro-organisms
migrate from latrines to water sources. High levels if environmental
contamination often associated with improper waste and excreta management are
wide spread among informal settlements. Such contamination affects water
quality resulting in water related diseases (Muturi, 2013). According to David
(2005) water quality is vital in the provision of water supply. He is of the
opinion that the water quality required for any use whether personal or
domestic must be safe and free from chemicals and micro-organisms. Mostert (2003)
argues that water and sanitation should be accessible to all people without discrimination.

Attaining
universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all by
2030 will be a challenge particularly in developing countries’ informal settlements
(WHO, 2015).In Bangladesh informal settlements residence lack reliable access
to safe water .If there is money there is water and if there is no money there
is no water. The main contributory factor to poor urban sustainability is poor
cost recovery. It reduces the capacity of responsible authorities to increase
service coverage and on the other had an urban supply system can’t survive
without a sound financial base and cost recovery methods. Water losses in
poorly managed systems can be considerable and when such losses occur they make
economic viability even more difficult.

In
many informal settlements pit latrines and buckets are still in use often
shared by family’s .In other areas people defecate and urinate in nearby bushes
hence food and water easily get contaminated from exposure to human waste