global phenomena of suicide and suicidal behaviour have significant
implications on the collective mentality. These are growing health concerns and
are viewed as public health threats (Sava, 2014). Suicide is the deliberate act
of harming oneself, consciously aware of the fatal consequences (WHO, Geneva
2006). Suicidal attempt is a self-inflicted and non-fatal act. It is mainly
done with the intent to mobilize help (CDC, 2011). According to Reiss and
Dombeck (2007), suicide ideation occurs when people undergo through tough
situations which are considered beyond their control. People who experience
suicide ideation have developed feelings of hopelessness and worthlessness. Therefore,
they consider this act of suicide as the only way to mitigate their distress.
attempts in most cases, may not necessarily result in death. These acts are
normally considered as a cry for help (Befrienders Worldwide, 2012). There are
various methods for self-aggression. They vary between countries and across
ages. According to WHO/EURO Multicentre Study on Parasuicide,
the most common method used in all countries is drug overdose, with
psychotropics for instance cocaine or cannabis and nonnarcotic analgesics that
is painkilling drugs like aspirin (Michel et al., 2000).
based on the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study on Parasuicide, the means used for
suicide attempts did not vary significantly with age (Schmidtke et al., 1996).
Methods such as cutting the wrists were more prevalent in all age groups.
to the World Health Organisation, there is an estimated one million annual
death globally (WHO, 2012). Suicide is one of the leading causes of death in
the world. Every 40 seconds, someone somewhere commits suicide.
Over a year, this adds up to about 1 million self-inflicted deaths. One of the most
predominant factors of suicide are mental disorders, however, there is little
knowledge about which disorders can predict suicidal behaviour or the extent to
which they can predict suicide attempts beyond their association with suicidal
thoughts and whether there are similarities in these associations across developed
and developing countries (Nock et al. 2009).