The classified as very good. The BMWP score for

The BMWP score for the rural site was 69.25. A score between 51 – 100 is classified as moderate. The ASPT score for the rural site was 6.269 and a score >6 is classified as very good. The BMWP score for the urban site was 46.75 and a score between 16 – 50 is classified as poor. The corresponding ASPT score for this site was 3.955 which is <4 and therefore classified as poor.The T-test result for the BMWP scores was 0.001850573531 which is <0.05 and therefore shows that the difference between the BMWP scores for the two sites is statistically significant. The T-test result for the ASPT scores was 0.0000002279127338 which is <0.05 and therefore the difference between the ASPT scores for the two sites is also statistically significant.The Bray - Curtis index of dissimilarity was 0.839. A result of 0 would indicate that the two sites have identical composition of macroinvertebrates and a result of 1 would indicate that the two sites share no similarities in terms of macroinvertebrate community composition. The result of 0.839 indicates that there is a large difference between the composition of macroinvertebrates in the rural site and the urban site.These results show that there is a very significant difference between the urban and rural sites of the Tramore stream. The rural site contained a high density of caddisflies and mayflies which are characteristic of a good quality stream ecosystem. The composition of the invertebrate communities changed as the stream flowed from the rural to urban sites. Caddisflies and mayflies were rare at the urban site while more tolerant taxa such as crustacea, molluscs and worms were abundant. These results are in accordance with results of similar studies. It was found that the number of intolerant taxa decreased with increased urbanisation and that sensitive species were mainly found at rural sites while more tolerant taxa were found at sites with a higher level of urbanisation (Luo et al., 2017). It is clear that urbanisation leads to stream ecosystems where more tolerant taxa are dominant at the urban sites, while more sensitive taxa are found in at more rural sites (Luo et al., 2017).This change in macroinvertebrate community composition along an urbanisation gradient shows that the quality of the stream decreases significantly as the stream flows through Cork City. The factors influencing this change are likely to be the result of urbanisation, as mentioned in the introduction to this report. Grizzetti et al. estimated that one third of EU's territory rivers are in good ecological status. They also noted that a higher ecological status is associated with the presence of natural areas in floodplains, while urbanisation and nutrient pollution are important predictors of ecological degradation. At present, it appears that the Tramore stream is failing the Water Framework Directive at the urban site. It was found that in order to improve the ecological quality of a stream, urban sprawl must be reduced, nutrient pollution must be strictly controlled and natural areas along the banks must be preserved (Grizzetti et al.). The Water Framework Directive must be strictly implemented and compliance with this legislation will result in improvements in ecosystem health and water quality (European Environment Agency, 2010).