James need a government that is not only able

James
Madison starts Federalist 51 by stating that the structure of government proposed
will help liberty flourish. Then, he goes on to state, and argue for, the
mechanics of this proposed structure. First, all systems must be independent of
one another, meaning that one branch should not have too much power over
another. However, this does not mean that each branch should be elected by the
people. In particular, he is referring to the judicial branch on account of the
legal knowledge required to effectively hold a position in this branch. In
order for branches to be independent of one another, they must not be dependent
on one another. This entails Constitutional protections for their salary,
power, and other factors of their position. In order to ensure this, we need a
government that is not only able to govern the people, but is also required to
govern itself. While the legislative body has the most concentration of power,
which is common in most republics, it must also be checked to ensure this
balance.

Madison
then goes on to discuss the importance of making sure that the majority does
not tyrannize the minority. One way of avoiding this is to construct a “community
will” that does not tend to the majority. However, this is not a real solution
on account of there being no way of keeping this “community will” from going
against the best interest of the public. Instead, we should allow many
factions. A diversity of ideas will keep one idea from dominating the others,
and thus keep the majority from tyrannizing the minority. He then goes on to
argue that the purpose of government is justice and to protect against anarchy.
Additionally, even the strongest will submit to government because of the
threat of anarchy. Unfortunately, this means that even the strongest will
submit to a government, even when it is bad. He then reiterates that a system
of checks and balances is important and how this proposed system makes it
possible. 

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