An automatic transmission, also called auto, self-shifting transmission, n-speedautomatic (where n is its number of forward gear ratios), or AT, is a type of motor vehicle transmission that can automatically change gear ratios as the vehicle moves, freeing the driver from having to shift gears manually. Like other transmission systems on vehicles, it allows an internal combustion engine, best suited to run at a relatively high rotational speed, to provide a range of speed and torque outputs necessary for vehicular travel.
Since the first car rolled out on the streets of Mumbai (then Bombay) in 1898, theAutomobile Industry of India has come a long way. During its early stages the auto industrywas overlooked by the then Government and the policies were also not favorable. Theliberalization policy and various tax reliefs by the Govt. of India in recent years has maderemarkable impacts on Indian Automobile Industry. Indian auto industry, which is currentlygrowing at the pace of around 18 % per annum, has become a hot destination for global autoplayers like Volvo, General Motors and Ford.
A well developed transportation system plays a key role in the development of an economy,and India is no exception to it. With the growth of transportation system the AutomotiveIndustry of India is also growing at rapid speed, occupying an important place on the ‘canvas’of Indian economy
Today Indian automotive industry is fully capable of producing various kinds of vehicles andcan be divided into 03 broad categories: Cars, two-wheelers and heavy vehicles
Now a day the transport facilities well-developed of these cars are a very essential transport mode to travel from one place to another place. Because of rapid industrial growth and economic growth the standard of living of the people is enhanced.
· Jeep Compass
· Hyundai Verna
· Hyundai Verna
· Renault Kwid
· Toyota Fortuner
· Renault Duster
· Skoda Octavia
INDIAN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY
During the 1920s, cars exhibited design refinements such as balloon tires, pressed-steelwheels, and four-wheel brakes.
The origin of automobile is not certain. In this section of automobile history, we will onlydiscuss about the phases of automobile in the development and modernization process sincethe first car was shipped to India. We will start automotive history from this point of time.The automobile industryhas changed the way people live and work. The earliest of moderncars was manufactured in the year 1895. Shortly the first appearance of the car followed inIndia. As the century turned, three cars were imported in Mumbai (India). Within decadethere were total of 1025 cars in the city.
The dawn of automobile actually goes back to 4000 years when the first wheel was used for transportation in India. In the beginning of 15th century Portuguese arrived in China and theinteraction of the two cultures led to a variety of new technologies, including the creation of awheel that turned under its own power. By 1600s small steam-powered engine models wasdeveloped, but it took another century before a full-sized engine-powered vehicle wascreated
According to Commerce Minister Kamal Nath, India is an attractive destination for globalauto giants like BMW, General Motors, Ford and Hyundai who were setting base in India,despite the absence of specific trade agreements
By 2010, India is expected to witness over Rs 30,000 crore of investment.
•Maruti Udyog has set up the second car with an investment of Rs 6,500 crore.
•Hyundai will bring in more than Rs 3,800 crore to India.
•Tata Motors will be investing Rs 2,000 crore in its small car project.
•General Motors will be investing Rs 100 crore and Ford about Rs 350 crore.
•Ashok Leyland and Tata Motors have each announced over Rs 1,000 crore of investment
INDIAN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY GROWTH
The passenger car and motorcycle segment in Indian auto Industry is growing by 8-9 per cent
FACTS & FIGURES
India, in auto sector, is turning to be a sourcing base for the global auto majors. Thepassenger car and the motorcycle segment is set to grow by 8-9 per cent in coming coupleof years, says the ICRA report. The industry is likely to maintain the growth momentumpicked up in 2002-03.The ICRA’s analysis points on the auto sector that the passenger car market in the countrywas inching towards cars with higher displacements. The sports-utility-vehicle (SUV)that was getting crowded everyday, would witness intense competition as many SUVshad been competitively priced, the report said.
Honda,Suzuki,General MotorsandHyundai,the global automakers had alreadylaunched their premium SUVs in the market to broaden their portfolio and create productexcitement in the segment estimated at about 10,000 unit annually
INDIAN AUTOMOBILE COMPANIES
India is the 11th largest Passenger Cars producing countries in the world and 4th largest inHeavy Trucks.
· Hyundai Motors India is the second largest player in passenger car market.
· Sundram Fasteners, Sundaram Clayton, Bharat Forge and Rico Auto suppliescomponents to global majors like Ford, General Motors and Land Rover.
· Tata Motors is the fifth largest medium & heavy commercial vehicle manufacturer inthe worldTo know the image of product in the mind of consumer.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
?To compare the level of satisfaction before purchasing and after purchasing the car.
?To know the most popular media for advertisement .
?To check the loyalty of the consumer towards the brands.
?To know the most motivating factor for purchasing the four –wheeler.
?To know the preferable price from the customer.
?To study their attitude toward various Cars brand.
?To find out the perceived positioning of different Car Brands.
?To know out the choice criteria which the customer while purchasing a Car.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Relevant literatures pertaining to the present study on four wheeler automobile industry are included in this chapter. The literatures are helpful for proper understanding the four wheeler automobile industry and its various related aspects. Review of literature is also helpful in effectively fulfilling the objectives for which the research project has been undertaken.
(G.S. Dangayach and S.G. Deshmukh )in their study on ‘Advanced manufacturing technologies: evidences from Indian automobile companies’ in International Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management ,reports the findings of anexploratory survey on ‘Advanced manufacturing technologies (AMT)’ administered in Indian automobile companies. The objective of the survey is to assess the status of advanced manufacturing technologies, identify advanced manufacturing technologies relevant to Indian automobile sector companies, identify competitive priorities, and assess the degree of investment in advanced manufacturing technologies. Responses from 68 companies are analysed and presented.
?RNCOS industry in their study of Indian Automobile Sector provides a forecast and analysis based on various macro- and microeconomic factors, sector and industry specific databases, and an in-house statistical and analytical model. This model takes into account the past and current trends in an economy, and more specifically in an industry, to bring out an objective market analysis. In this research main topics covered are: Study of the Indian automobile industry structure, Analysis of performance of industry sub-segments and their future outlook, Understanding the Indian auto component market and its growth aspects, Identification of future prospects for the Indian automobile industry.
?S. Saraswathi undertook a study on ‘Customer Satisfaction on Post-Sales Service with Reference to Four-Wheeler Automobile Industry’ which reveals that the key to success of automobile industry lies not only in having good products but also in being able to provide the customer with the level of service they desire. Because of increasing competitiveness in the Indian automobile industry, almost all automobile manufacturers have invested valuable resources on customer satisfaction as a tool to understand the needs and expectations of their customers. Increased presence of four-wheeler vehicles throughout the country has created a growing need for providing service infrastructures closer to the customers’ homes or offices.
Dr V Sumantran (Executive Director-Passenger Car Business Unit and Engineering Research Centre at Tata Motors Limited during November 2001 to August 2005, conducted a study on ‘The Indian Auto Industry & The Role of Dealers which reveals that the global auto industry has been the subject of much analysis in recent years. While global capacity creation proceeds at a good clip on one hand, continued capacity creation in the face of sluggish sales have led to depressed levels of capacity utilization. Today, the Indian auto industry is one of the largest industrial sectors with a turnover that contributes to roughly 5 per cent of India’s GDP. More importantly, it contributes to employment of over 2 million people directly and indirectly to another 10 million. The industry is important for national policy in that it contributes 19 per cent of indirect taxes.
?Akie Takeuchi, Maureen Cropper and Antonio Bento in the Journal of Regional Sciences published a paper on ‘The impact of policies to control motor vehicle emissions in Mumbai, India’ which examines the impacts of measures to reduce emissions from buses, cars, and four-wheelers in Mumbai,India. They have considered three possible policies: conversion of diesel buses to CNG, an increase in the price of gasoline and a tax on vehicle ownership.
?In The Wall Street Journal,India Infoline Sector Reports published a report on Automobile- Indian four Wheelers Industry which reveals that India is the second largest manufacturer and producer of four-wheelers in the world. It stands next only to Japan and China in terms of the number of four-wheelers produced and domestic sales respectively. This distinction was achieved due to variety of reasons like restrictive policy followed by the Government of India towards the passenger car industry, rising demand for personal transport,inefficiency in the public transportation system etc
?Dr. Amit Kumar Dwivedi and Mr. Punit Kumar Dwivedi, in their article on Automobile Sector: Industry Vs Indian Middle Class in Indian MBA concluded that there are great opportunities and possibilities in the automobile sector. But hike in the fuel price is influencing the market of this industry. There is a need of a very liberal policy for the fuel prices and requires a great good deal with fuel supplying countries. Though, the performance of the industry is better instead of high and unfavourable fuel policy.The new launching of Tata’s Nano ‘One Lakh Car’ which is also known as People’s Car is also a very good strategy to capture the middle class customers. Introduction of Nano and BajajLite will definitely affect the growth and sales volumes of cars which will also affect the industry by reaching, catching the Indian middle class and fulfilment of their own car need.
?Sunila George, Raghbendra Jha, Hari K. Nagarajan in their research paper on The Evolution and Structure of the four-wheeler Industry in India’ studied the evolution of the competitive structure of the two-wheeler industry in India. The evolution of the industry’s competitive structure is traced using Kendall’s Index of Rank Concordance and the Evans-Karr as test of convergence. The industry seems to be characterized by oligopoly with the onset of economic reforms not making much difference to industrial structure. Convergence of sales and capacity at the level of the industry is conditional while it is absolute at the level of the segment.
?Dr A. Subbiah and S. Jeyakumar(Ph.D research scholar at PG and Research Department of Commerce)
in their market survey report on Automobiles: the Engines of
In today’s challenging and competitive world of last changing technology, consumer taste sare also characterized by fast changes. So to survive in the market the firms have to be in touch with the changing consumer preferences. Marketers have to understand the consumer behaviour and factors influencing the buying behaviour of the customers in order to be successful in this dynamic and competitive environment.
MEANING OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR:
Consumer Behaviour is the behaviour that the consumer display while searching for,evaluating, purchasing and disposing off products and services that they expect will satisfy their needs. Consumer behaviour is the study of how consumer makes their decisions to spend their resources on consumption related items i.e. time, efforts and money.Study of consumer behaviour proves the marketers an insight regarding the consume preferences and helps them in effective market segmentation and targeting. The importance of consumer behaviour lies in the fact that behaviour can be understood and influenced to ensure a positive purchase decision. So a round understanding of consumer behavior is necessary for long run success of any marketing program. That’s why the marketing managers interest lies exactly in understanding consumer behavior to ensure that his marketing strategy results in purchase of the product.
When we talk of Research Methodology, we not only talk of Research Methods but also take into consideration the logic behind the methods which we use in the context of our research study and explain why we use or why we are using a particular method or technique. The information that is to be needed for fulfilling the objective of study was collected from various primary and secondary sources.
The study is a cross sectional study because the data were collected at a single point of time. For the purpose of present study a related sample of population was selected on the basis of convenience.
?Target Population –
The respondents are those who are having their own Cars.
?Sample size –
100 persons were visited for the purpose of the study.
?Sampling Technique –
In this study, the respondents were chosen through convenience and judgmental sampling.
– Data collection through survey was analyzed with the help of simple percentage, tabular and graphic method that includes both graphs and pie charts
DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUE
The whole secondary data were collected from industry profile, books, magazines and internet. While primary data where collected though survey. The customer survey was done though the questionnaire. Question consists of dichotomous multiple questions and 5 point ranking scale
SOURCE OF DATA:
There are two types of data: primary data and secondary data
. PRIMARY DATA
are collected with the help of questionnaire and secondary data was taken from industry profile, books,magazines and internet. The information brochures of certain companies, informal links with concerned person in this line, articles in newspapers and magazines and journals have also been consulted as a secondary source of information.
The research study is descriptive in nature. The established objectives were kept in mind during the study, however the hypothesis was formed as the study was made in the form of descriptive design attempting to analyze the attitude of respondents. This chapter describes the methodology of the study. This project is based on information collected from primary sources. After the detailed study, an attempt has been made to present comprehensive analysis of the industry. The data had been used to cover various aspects like consumption, consumer’s preference and customer’s satisfaction regarding two wheelers.
A structured questionnaire was administered for the purpose of obtaining information form the respondents. Care was taken to put the questions related to subject. It contains close-ended as well open-ended questions as the objective demanded.
The study is a cross sectional study because the data were collected at a single point of time.For the purpose of present study a related sample of population was selected on the basis of convenience
LIMITATIONS OF STUDY
Despite all possible efforts in conducting the research there was some unavoidable situation, which limited the scope of this dissertation. The limitations of the dissertation fall under the following:-
1. As the data was collected by way of questionnaire which was to be filled by respondents, and taking time from respondents was the most difficult & some of the respondents did not responded well.
2. This project is also confined on the basis of secondary data collected only hence it reliable data for the study.
3. As the research is based on the data that already available and collected through various means not includes the survey, hence it imposes limitations, as it is just possible that the secondary data may be unsuitable or may be inadequate in the context of the topic under study.
4. One of the major limitations of the study is that, as the data is collected though the secondary means, hence it creates uncertainties regarding the methods of the data collection, time of data collected, and any bias of the compiler during the previous research and at the time of data collection.
5. Limitation of time & resources were a major factor influencing the research study.