I broad in this I will further explain. ‘Childhood

I will
be answering the question addressing the newspaper article under the title ‘Social class ‘determines child’s success’ (Garner, 2008) this
relates to ideas of childhood being drawn in relation to specifically social class
the focus point. I will Firstly, ensure the definition of childhood and social
class is clarified and made clear. The following article (Garner, 2008) that will be further
discussed broader is the idea that Children’s social class is still the most
significant factor that takes place in state schools as of present. The
government makes an emphasis that they believe the disadvantage schools also relays
to students they believe are low achievers. So as of now there is an urge and
need for more highly qualified teachers. This also raises a social issue as all
schools should have the same knowledge of qualified teachers teaching to the
same extent. In other words, the article makes it clear that this is not so
much of the case in all schools. This raises the questions as to whether
schools have a certain standard they accept in relation to teachers. On the
other hand, I will address whether teachers solely make the decision to teach
at disadvantage schools, where in this case it more challenging due to the
capability of the students. Childhood
has become very broad in this I will further explain. ‘Childhood this is a set
of culturally specific ideas about who children are and what they should be. On
the other hand, Children are social agents that act on the world and who are
positioned differently through categories such as gender, race, ethnicity and
social class. There is also a perspective from policy makers view on childhood.
Childhood is now becoming more of a social construction in view of this I will
give arguments as to why this is more of the case now. It has been argued that
“Children’s development is a social and cultural process. Children don’t grow
up on their own! They learn to think, feel, communicate and act within social
relationships in the context of particular cultural settings and practices,
mediated by beliefs about how children should be treated and what it means to
be a child, as well as when childhood begins and ends (Richards and Light 1986;
Schaffer 1996; Woodhead et al. 1998).” 1
(Kehily, 1 Nov 2008, p.19) In relation to this quote there is a large emphasis because
children and childhood have now become part of stages of an individual’s lives
and formation. The socio-cultural theory by Vygotsky this theory describes the
human learning as a social process and the origination of human intelligence in
society or a cultural perspective. From very young with the idea of Vygotsky
children learn ‘More Knowledgeable Other.’ At the beginning stages of an early
age children develop and are taught unconsciously. This is from the social
interactions acquired from parents so therefore it is vital to ensure that
children possess knowledge from a high skilled learner. However, these
disregards young pupils do not have the knowledge to be able to learn and
become skilled with there own knowledge. (Mark, 2013)
“Mastery of different literacies, for example, reading musical scores,
mathematical proofs or intricate diagrams – 
exposes ne to once-inaccessible bodies of knowledge and allows one to
contribute new knowledge within these traditions. According to, Gardner
believes it is important to consider because he acknowledges that each student
has different strengths and that we use, as teachers, must understand this to
teach effectively within the classroom. All individuals should have the opportunity
to develop their own forms of intelligence potential interests. Through
also the influence of recent measures that have been put in place, to help the
needs of disadvantage schools this most importantly relates to the students who
are the ‘low achievers’. The idea that this has now become the disadvantaged
schools that experience this current issue. The qualified teacher shortage
crisis, as schools are progressively under burden to be maintained constantly
the attention for the needs of poverty therefore this has come down to a
scarcity crisis. Earlier debates covered, “The combination of higher class
sizes and fewer teachers and teaching assistants has put pressure on schools to
deliver SEND provision. The National Union of Teachers (NUT) reports that in 12
months to Nov 2015 over 50,000 (10% of the total workforce) qualified teachers
left the profession.” (Thompson, 18 Oct 2017) There is a
percentage of teachers that have left the profession this is evidence of the
lack force of teachers in schools and so in terms of schools that are
disadvantaged this most importantly relates to state and comprehensive schools,
that are usually funded by the local community. In the following article that I
am analysing “Mr Holley also warned that as many as three in every 10 secondary
schools (around 1,000 state schools) were “arguably still performing
unsatisfactorily”. But he distanced himself from the claim made by Gordon
Brown that schools that failed to get 30 per cent of their pupils to achieve
five A* to C grade passes at GCSE were “failing”. (Garner, 2008) In this argument
view perspective Mr Holley in a sense has made a valid point as to whether the
government and schools consider the needs of students specifically rather than
meeting the needs of the country and this is mainly beneficial to the state as
in most situations. About another article that mentions points regarding the
Conservative Party have no plans on how they will strive for an exceptional
education for the young people. The issue of this is the maintenance of power,
that is not only failing students but what the country depends on which is
always to move onto greater heights. “Tory plans to open more grammar schools
will drive this gap even further apart, and their reckless handling of our
existing school’s system has led to teacher shortages, massive cuts to school
budgets and class sizes which are too big.” (Ellis, 2017 January ) The vital point
mentioned that the idea of Grammar schools will not help schools in relation to
the continuous budget cuts that take place constantly that is affecting the
percentage of failure, increase in truancy and cause for concern absence’s in
particular areas. Social class, “a division of a society based on social and economic
status. (Anon., 2018)” The idea that
social class is now a wide effect and influence on education is very important
to consider, families that are unable to provide all resources needed lack and
are at a disadvantage. Susanna Rustin (Rustin, 2015 October ) concentrates on
guiding all the reservations for socially disadvantaged children.  The
key points that Educational inequality, she mentions falls in line with the
lack of economic inequality. This does not only affect families but the
performance of schools that lead to the record of pupils’ achievement. “Even
extraordinary schools cannot close gaps on their own. “Whenever there is a
squeeze on resources and capacity, it tends to be poorer areas and people that
feel it most. I worry that welfare cuts will take away from families of
pupil-premium children and that we might see gaps growing again.” (Rustin, 2015 October ) There is emphasis on
the fact that schools do not spread budgets across so that this meets up to the
needs from all individual backgrounds. Meanwhile there are some left behind because
of this, school premium has not been spread out proportional, due to as mentioned
above the continuous cuts from the government. The link between social class
and mobility is adjacent. (Shepherd, 2010) concentrates on guiding and the
influence that parents have on their children in determining their level of
success within school, this is not the idea of “good parenting.” “A study of
11,000 seven-year-old children found that those with parents in professional
and managerial jobs were at least eight months ahead of pupils from the most
socially disadvantaged homes, where parents were often unemployed.” (Shepherd, 2010) Children from
disadvantaged backgrounds are now in a situation as schools do not give them
the opportunity to experience the fullest of education in term of making sure
they have all opportunities of achievement. (Shepherd, 2010) mentions in the article that the
researchers from the University of London’s Institute of Education considered
the factors in relation to ethnicity and family size. They found that parents’
social class had a bigger influence on a child’s progress between the ages of
five and seven. In correspondence to this (Shepherd, 2010) “Alice Sullivan, the main author of the
study, said the research showed that “while parenting is important, a
policy focus on parenting alone is insufficient to tackle the impacts of social
inequalities on children”. The idea that schools rely a large amount of
importance most prominently that parents spend time with children whilst doing
their homework and the basic activities that show the parents have interest in
the studies of their children. Studies have shown that Children with parents in
a higher social class and with a higher level of qualifications were also more
likely to have the benefits to make better academic progress between the ages
of five and seven. Furthermore, the idea of social mobility also
has an influence on the progress of children with education. (Alice Sullivan, 2013) proposes that “The
researchers also found a strong link between parents’ social class and
children’s cognitive ability at age seven. Children with professional parents
were more than seven months ahead of their peers whose parents had manual
jobs.” The notion that this journal article suggests the one of the main reason
for disadvantage pupils within schools is because the link between the
professions of parents. Although this may have importance to an extent schools
are continually being funded money to ensure the schools is functioning to the
best of needs and support parents and families financially. In relation to
school funding this is also a major factor in the reasons for the disadvantage
schools and pupils’. Unfortunately, due to significant changes within time
there has been a shift in school funding after the years of 2006-07, a priority
of school funding had taken place mainly in urban areas than others around. (Simons, 2016) “From 2007, the
Labour government introduced a dedicated schools grant, guaranteeing that
education funding allocated by government would be spent on schools (as opposed
to say roads, or social care)” To begin with the funding worked at well
fulfilling the main purpose and needs of pupils. Although the Labour government
failed to take into the idea that within time the areas that may need funding
may absolutely change. They did not meet the needs of all demographic areas and
so therefore this leaves a gap for geographical areas. The
issue has just been addressed on the areas that strike a concern of need in the
initial stages of the funding. (Jo, 2006)
“Recent work conducted by the author for the Joseph Rowntree Foundation
(Blanden and Gibbons, 2006) reveals that much of the correlation between
poverty across generations is driven by other aspects of disadvantage in the
teenage and childhood years. The approach of the remainder of the table is to consider
the extent to which those with multiple disadvantages are at greater risk of
poverty, and therefore, can be better defined as bucking the trend when they
avoid it.” Further points mention the risk of definition of a group, the main
issue is that this journal article relates the point that “parents who did not
work at the age of 16 were poor at the age of 30” (Jo, 2006) If these individuals
experience poverty during their youth years when they are an adult they are
likely to go through poverty. There is also a disadvantage for a strong belief
that statistics prove to a small extent. Children during their youth years
should not feel limited if they are brought up with the lack of resources
resulting in poverty. On the other hand, schools should be the support of young
pupils who are not so privileged and at a “disadvantage” for more encouragement
to ensure they are not of a step behind within education due to the financial
and social needs status. In
relation to the main article I am addressing with the issues of childhood and
social class. The chief executive of the Training and Development Agency
mentions (Garner, 2008) “The performance of a school and a
child in it is highly linked to social class.” This point radicalises the idea
that although there is an issue of social class and the relative link regarding
pupil performance schools still need to make the most of the funding and
government taking a stand point in relation to this. (Garner, 2008) in this argument mentions the idea that
a change is important but the government in all reasons is not at fault for
this. “It’s not something this government has done. It’s not something the last
government has done. It’s something that has been there since the Second World
War and probably even before that.” The idea is that the government start
to raise ideas and incentives to help the families that are derived from a
lower social background than others as this has an important and effective
impact is taking place on pupils’ progress within schools does show to have an impact. Culturally factors surrounding
children background is also affluential about the educational achievement that
takes place, backgrounds, beliefs and individual parental discipline also is a
way of sharpening up and controlling children. These
morals taught are taken to them within school and due to this they tend to see
this as high importance but with the influence of values within school surely
there is a clash. (Kehily, 1 Nov 2008) “For children in Western societies
expressed through numerous shared activities: through peer group playing and
games, styles of dress and behaviour, ways of talking, use of phones, mobiles,
texting, Internet chat rooms, patterns of consumption of commercial toys,
television, computer games and other media.” (Kehily and Swann 2003) The
influence on cultural differences may also have an impact on the life of
children and geographical areas of birth within the United Kingdom.In conclusion of this Essay I have addressed
the issues that collide with extents to childhood and focus point on the main article
I have been addressing. Children from very are perceived of an image and this is
a reputation that, teachers build upon children which infill a self-fulfilling prophecy.
In relation to this parent also play an important part, when it comes to childhood
innocence, some parents view their children as the ‘devils’ ‘angels’ although it
is clear these are quite scarce views it is important that parents create a boundary
within this. The
Romantic-inspired child of innocence also calls into being its opposite – the
demonic child. I have addressed that the government are unable to meet the needs
and budgets of all schools, most especially the disadvantaged schools that may face
situations more difficulty. So, the government believe in this that they need to
create a new formula to understand how to spread the budgets across equally.

1 (Kehily, 1 Nov 2008) 

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