Contents 6 Leadership: 6 Age: 6 Chronological Age. 6

Contents
-Age & Gender- and
Leadership Styles: Impact of Age and Gender on Leadership Styles of Managers  2
Abstract 2
Key Words. 2
Research Area: 2
Research Type: 2
Problem Statement: 2
Introduction. 2
Age and Leadership: 2
Gender and Leadership: 3
Objectives of the Research: 3
Research Question: 4
Leadership Styles Chosen for the
Study. 4
Reasons for choosing the above
styles. 4
Literature Review: 4
Theoretical Framework: 6
Variables: 6
Dependent Variables                                Independent
Variables. 6
Description of Independent
Variables: 6
Leadership: 6
Age: 6
Chronological Age. 6
Biological Age. 7
Psychological Age. 7
Gender: 7
Methodology: 7
Hypothesis: 7
Hypothesis One. 7
Hypothesis Two. 7
Hypothesis Three. 7
Limitations of the Study. 7
Conclusions. 8
Bibliography. 9
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-Age & Gender- and Leadership Styles: Impact of Age and
Gender on Leadership Styles of Managers

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Abstract

The aim
of this study is to investigate the different leadership styles and the
influence of age and gender on the leadership styles of the managers of different
banks in Bahawalpur, Pakistan. The study concentrated on the three interesting
leadership styles that are at the top, bottom and the middle of the leadership
authority hierarchy, namely the autocratic, democratic and the laissez-faire
leadership styles. The study reveals that the demographic leadership style is
the dominant one and age and gender have their own influence on the managers’
leadership styles. The study also reveals that with increase in age relatively
lesser authority is exhibited by the workers and gender too is found to
influence the leadership styles of the managers.

Key Words

Age, Leadership, Gender, Positive Affect, Effective
Leader, Gender Roles, Negative Affect, Performance, Work Life

Research Area: Marketing

Research Type:
Research
Paper

Problem Statement:

No research has been conducted before on the
relation between the employee’s leadership behavior and these two variables
especially considering the Autocratic, Democratic and Laissez-fair leadership
styles in MCB Bank located in Bahawalpur, Pakistan. That’s why this study plans
to investigate and explore this relationship; the research problem is defined
as follows:

To
explore the effect of Age & Gender on Leadership Styles of workers in the
MCB Bank, located in Bahawalpur, Pakistan.

Introduction

Age
and Leadership:

The leader is an extraordinary person who Inspires,
and has a long lasting effect of his achievements and success on the people at workplace.
There’s a concept of “Natural Born Leader”, the people who born with the
leadership qualities. The hurdles to enter the business world are less for such
persons because of their extraordinary skills of influencing their colleagues
by their work. (Holley, 2015).

Does the age affect Leadership? Yes, it does in many
ways. It’s a common impression that old people cannot do what youngsters can
do. For example, the old people cannot cope with the technology but the
youngsters can. There’s another concept that the wisdom comes with the age.
There are many things that the young ones can’t do but the old people can. For
example, teenagers cannot give advices in contrast to them, the old ones can. (Kotur & Anbazhagan, The Influence of Age and
Gender on the Leadership Styles, 2014).

But in the modern era, the age really does not
matter, what actually matters is the ability to compete. In the past few
decades, there have been numerous leaders who have failed as well as succeeded
at every age. The leader should be passionate, talented and committed to the work.

Gender
and Leadership:

Despite the fact that women’s ratio is increasing in
the business sector, within the past few decades women are discriminated in
higher levels of organizations. Some researches show that the men are more
effective and efficient leaders than women. But some other researches proved
opposite that there are some organizations that require female leaders, and
take advantage of their “feminine” leadership qualities. (Paustian, Underdahl, Walker, & Woehr, 2014)

Women are no doubt better leaders because they are
hardworking and more likely to adapt dramatic and participative styles, and men
are more likely to emphasis on power and control.

Here, these are some discrepancies in -age &
gender- that affect the leadership behavior of employees in various ways. Many
researchers have thoroughly studied the influence of the age and gender on
leadership behavior of employees. Mature leaders are more likely to understand
their co-workers better and that helps them in dealing with their co-workers in
a confident and efficient way. Leadership is also related to the understanding
the fellow men and fulfilling the tasks altogether. Even due to gender also,
there is a remarkable difference in the leadership behaviors of people in an
organization. (Kotur & S., The Influence of Age and Gender on
the Leadership Styles)

The purpose of this study is to explore the
influence of age and gender on leadership behavior of employees – especially on
the workers in MCB Bank located in Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Various researches on
leadership have studied the impact of leader’s age and gender on his followers’
performances. But the purpose of this study is to inspect the impact of the
variables –age and gender- on the managers’ leadership style. (Myatt)

 

Objectives of the Research:

The main objectives of this research are:

1.      The
purpose is to explore the differences between Autocratic, Democratic and
Laissez-fair Leadership Styles.

2.      To
study the influence of Age and Gender on the leadership styles of managers in Different
Banks of Bahawalpur, Pakistan.

Research Question:

1.      Does
Age & Gender affect the Leadership behavior of the workers in Different
Banks of Bahawalpur, Pakistan?

Leadership Styles Chosen for the Study

For this study, only three leadership styles are
chosen, these are;

1.      Autocratic
Leadership Style

2.      Democratic
Leadership Style

3.      Laissez-fair
Leadership Style

Reasons
for choosing the above styles

The reasons for choosing only the above three
leadership styles for this research are;

1.      Studying
only these three styles is easy and interesting because utilizing the authority
of the Leaders in Autocratic, Democratic and Laissez-fair fall at all the top,
middle and lower management of the organizations.

2.      The
other Leadership styles than above three styles are transactional and
transformational leadership but these are not chosen for this research because;
they have already been studied broadly by various researchers before. 

3.      Because
some studies have claimed that Pakistan is a democratic country so, to test
this percept, the democratic style has been chosen for this research.

4.      Conducting
research to test all the leadership styles is costly and is not in affordable range
of researcher; this is also the reason to keep the research only to three
styles. 

Literature Review:

A person
who leads a group of people towards a common goal, is knows as a leader
(Andrew, 2009). The leader influences his group members to accomplish the
specified objectives and the way in which the leader handles his followers is
known as leadership style (Sheikh, 2001). According to Adeyemi and Brlarinwa
(2013) leadership is “the art or process of influencing people so that they
will strive willingly towards the achievement of objects”. Yukl (2004) point is
that, leadership is an act of influencing subordinates to accomplish
organizational goals through authority.

Different
theories of leadership classify leadership in different ways. Based on the use
of authority, leadership is classified into three types as autocratic,
democratic and laissez faire leadership styles (Adeyemi, 2004). Maximum
authority is exhibited in the autocratic leadership style and this leader
always wants to command, order his followers to comply. This leader orders but
will not hear to his followers (Bass, 1990).

On the
other hand, in democratic leadership style the leader gives equal priority to
each individual under him and feels himself/herself as an important member of
the organization (Adeyemi, 2007). In laissez-faire leadership style the leader
leaves the subordinate free to make decision and exercise powers. The leader
has least role and participation in the decisions made by his group members in
the organization (Ogunsanwo, 2000). These three styles – autocratic,
democratic, and laissez-faire (free-rein) – has their own merits and
limitations too and none of these could be universally applied. Depending on
the situation and the followers – the leader has to choose his leadership style
in order to be effective (Bass, 1990).

Cagle
(1988) has regarded age as one of the factors that determine the leadership
style. Apart from the professional and academic knowledge, it is commonly
believed that age and experience might play important roles in leadership
behaviors. In many cultures, the myth is that as people get older they become
wiser due to more exposure and experience. For example in African culture,
experience is considered as a function of age and therefore older peoples are
given priority for leadership positions in different organizations (Ahiazu,
1989).

It is
possible that males and females might lead from different perspectives. Winter,
Neal and Waner (2001) claim that “Current psychological research on leadership
and team interaction suggests that men and women exhibit different leadership
styles and interpersonal communication styles in a variety of small-group
situations from student problem- solving situations to industry and community
situations”. According to Lantz “women executives are much more likely than
males to be a department head or to fill some other staff position, whereas men
are much more likely to be a chief executive officer (CEO), chief operating
officer (COO), president, or vice president” (Lantz, 2008). Babcock (2008)
states that “Rather than intentional acts of bias, second-generation gender
biases reflect the continuing dominance of traditionally masculine values in
the workplace”. According to common perception, women are more emotional and
less competitive than men. For example, some authors have written that “Women
are significantly more risk averse, tend to be less overconfident and behave
less competitively oriented” (Beckman and Menkhoff, 2008).

The
effectiveness of the leaders more or less dictated the fate of the hotels (Li,
Tse, & Xie, 2007). The bank managers? demographic characteristics including
age influenced the business success. Mirini, Narjo and Kumbhar (2003) explored
the needed leadership competencies.

Some
studies (Van Engen and Willemsen, 2004)) have shown mixed empirical evidence
for gender influence on the leadership styles.

Hence,
it was considered very important to investigate the influence of age and gender
on the leadership styles of the workers and therefore the study was conducted.

Theoretical Framework:

Variables:

Leadership, Age, Gender, Behavior of managers

Dependent Variables                                Independent
Variables

·        
Leadership                                       

·        
Age                                                
Behavior of Managers

·        
Gender

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Description of Independent Variables:

a)    
Leadership:

Leadership is a process in which
leader motivates the group of employees to work and fulfill their goals. (Ward,
2017)

 

b)    
Age:

1.     
Chronological Age

Chronological age is defined as the
number of years a person has lived.

2.     
Biological Age

Biological age is defined as a
description of an individual’s development based on biomarkers.

3.     
Psychological Age

Psychological age is defined as a
subjective description of one’s experience using non-physical features. (Kowalczyk)

 

c)    
Gender:

Gender is defined as a personal
conception of oneself as male or female (or rarely, both or neither). (Ghosh, 2015)

Methodology:

This is
mainly based on the survey conducted on the workers in the different Banks of
Bahawalpur. Based on the data collected from the workers, the hypotheses (given
later) in this research were tested using suitable statistical tabulations and
tests.

Hypothesis:

Hypothesis One

H1 – There is no significant difference in the
number of employees with their inherent leadership styles.

Hypothesis Two

H2 – There is no significant difference between Male
and Female employees in terms of Leadership styles.

Hypothesis Three

H3 – There is no significant variance among
respondent age groups in terms of Leadership styles

Limitations of the Study

Some of
the limitations of this research study are:

a)     
not
all the workers in the firm were studied

b)     
only
some of the select banks was examined

c)     
geographically
the study is confined to a smaller town

d)     Only the three and not all leadership
styles were examined. Due to these reasons the findings may not be the general
results.

Conclusions

The two
variables chosen for this study – Age and Gender – indeed have their respective
influence on the leadership styles of the workers. The study indicates that the
democratic leadership style is dominant among the workers and with increasing
age, the workers tend to exhibit lesser authority and the female employees are
more autocratic in nature.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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