CHAPTER Nadu was one of the second largest costal

CHAPTER
I

 

INTORDUCTION

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               India was 7th largest
country in the world. India border was one side land another three side was
sea. So India has lots of marine resources. Total costal line was 8118 km.
India is the world’s 4th largest fishing nation in which 9 states
were in the border costal line according for over 4.39 % of the global output.
Among them Tamil Nadu was one of the second largest costal lines in India with
the total costal line of 1076 km. Tamil Nadu coast has nearly 26 big and small urban centers and
591 marine fishing villages located along the 13 maritime districts. Marine
fish landing takes place in 362 centers. Total Fishermen
population was 1.05 million. The present study was aimed to select 6 district
Cuddalore , Nagapattinam , Pudukottai , Ramanathapuram , Thuthukudi and
Kanyakumari. There are three types of fishermen people staying here pattanavar,
paravar , mukkavar. Tamil Nadu Fishermen were facing many problems inside and
outside the sea. The problem of fishermen crossing borders is a serious one on
the Indo-Sri Lankan maritime border. It has led to great deal of suffering
among the fisherfolk of both countries. Both governments are treating the
problem without acknowledging the real causes behind it. The problems need to
be squarely faced and creative solutions found so that national interests as
well as fishermen’s livelihoods are protected. Secondly the fishermen are
affected by the natural calamities such as cyclone, floods, tsunami etc.
Sometimes big fishes like as shark and whale shark. Attack the fishermen and
they are severely injured. Both the central government and state government are
providing many schemes for fishermen`s and particularly, as the Tamil Nadu
state government was providing many schemes for fishermen`s. considered as the
main part for the economic development. The method of fishing followed by the
Tamil Nadu fishermen was also very old as compare with other developing
countries. As the education standard of the maximum fishermen was below the
school level the schemes introduced by the government may not be able reach the
poor fishermen because of insufficient awareness among them is also the another
problem to be considered. Then marketing and kneading problem. So talking the
above problems into consideration the researcher has proposed to make an
attempt to study the problems and prospects of marine fishermen in select
district of Tamil Nadu.   

FISHING
INDUSTRY IN THE WORLD

 

This
planet is one of the beautiful planet in the universal. This planet also called
blue planet why it was called blue planet if we will see the planet from the
space it color was blue because it was called blue planet. What reason for this
color this world maximum surrounded by water? 70 % of seawater, 2.5 % is fresh
water and 27.5 % is land. Maximum land fully surrounded by sea water. So this
world has much more coastline. There are many humans living in coastline all
the humans fully depended in marine. Maine work in marine was fish capture.
These are people called marine fishermen. The marine was providing employment
for humans directly and indirectly. The marine resource cannot be reduced. 202
countries have coastline border in the world. Fishing is the one of the oldest
occupation in the world more than agriculture. 15 million people involving in
fish capture work in the world. Fish resource generally accounted for about 16
percentage part of the world protein.

 

Worldwide aggregate catch fishery creation in 2014 was 93.4
million tones, of which 81.5 million tones from marine waters and 11.9 million
tones from inland waters For marine fisheries generation, China remained the
real maker took after by Indonesia, the United States of America and the
Russian Federation. The aggregate number of angling vessels on the planet in
2014 is assessed at 4.6 million, near the figure for 2012. The armada in Asia
was the biggest, comprising of 3.5 million vessels and representing 75 percent
of the worldwide armada, trailed by Africa (15 percent), Latin America and the
Caribbean (6 percent), North America (2 percent) and Europe (2 percent)

 

Universal exchange assumes a noteworthy part in the fisheries and
aquaculture division as a business maker, nourishment provider, wage generator,
and supporter of monetary development and improvement, and in addition to
sustenance and nourishment security. Fish and fishery items speak to a standout
amongst the most-exchanged fragments of the world sustenance division, with
around 78 percent of fish items assessed to be presented to worldwide exchange
rivalry. For some nations and for various beach front and riverine locales,
fares of fish and fishery items are fundamental to their economies,
representing more than 40 percent of the aggregate estimation of exchanged
wares in some island nations, and all inclusive speaking to more than 9 percent
of aggregate horticultural fares and 1 percent of world stock exchange esteem
terms. Exchange fish and fishery items has extended extensively in late
decades, fuelled by developing fishery creation and driven by popularity, with
the fisheries segment working in an inexorably globalized condition. What’s
more, there is a critical exchange fisheries administration.

 

FISHING
INDUSTRY IN INDIA

India
is a beautiful peninsula country. India border was surrounded by west side Himalaya
east side bay of Bengal, Westside Arabian sea, south side Indian ocean. 9 Indian
state have coastline namely Gujarat, Maharashtra, goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil
Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, and west Bengal and also have to union territories
namely daman daiu and Pondicherry. in total fish production mechanized boat contribute  82 %. Motorized boats contribute 17 %, and traditional
boat contribute 1%.

Directly
India is the second biggest fish delivering and second biggest aquaculture
country on the planet. India is additionally a noteworthy maker of fish through
aquaculture and positions second on the planet after China. The aggregate fish
creation amid 2015-16 (temporary) is at 10.79 million metric ton (MMT) with a
commitment of 7.21 MMT from inland segment and 3.58 MMT from marine part. The
fish creation amid initial seventy five percent of 2016-17 has additionally
demonstrated an expanding pattern and is assessed at 8.18 Million Tons
(Provisional). 5.1.2 The fish generation has expanded from 3.84 MMT in 1990-91
to 10.79 MMT in 2015-16. The development in angle generation has demonstrated a
repeating design with an expanding long haul incline.

 

India’s
marine fisheries sub-part is currently performing with a comparative pattern
with over 60% Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) stocks over misused and the rest
completely abused. The marine assets of the nation involve an Exclusive
Economic Zone (EEZ) of 2.02 million sq. km, a mainland rack zone of 5,30,000
sq. km and a coastline of 8,129 km. add up to number of fish landing focus is
1,537. Add up to number of angling towns 3,432. Add up to number of anglers
families 8,74,749. Add up to fisher society populace 40,56,213. The marine
fishery potential in the Indian waters have been assessed at 4.41 MMT
constituting over 47% demersal, 48% pelagic and 5% maritime gatherings. The
diminishing pattern in marine catch fisheries restricts the extent of further
increase in collect catch as out of 1,368 species accessible, 200 monetarily
essential species likewise require consideration for their survival because of
their unpredictable natural way of life and inter– subordinate presence.

Anticipating high potential, the Hon’ble Prime Minister has
required “a transformation” in the fisheries division and has named
it as “Blue Revolution”. This unrest primary objective was increment
the general fish generation in a dependable and reasonable way for financial
thriving. Modernize the fisheries with extraordinary concentrate on new innovations.
Furthermore, guarantee comprehensive advancement and enable fishers and
aquaculture agriculturists.

Blue revolution vision and mission
followed  

MARINE
FISHERIES OVER VEW IN TAMIL NADU

                
Fisheries play various roles in creating job
opportunity, augmenting healthy food and earning substantial foreign exchange.
Tamilnadu is one of the main marine state in the east coast, it`s total coastal
line of 1076 kms., thamil nadu have been 13 costel districts and 591 villages
tamil nadu is fourth rank in fish production of in India. Tamil has a
conditional shelf 41,412 sq. km EEZ explosion over 0.19 million sq.kms. Tamil
nadu is main part of export marine products. During 2015-2016, about 457454
tons.