Calamansi is a small, very round citrus fruit that’s ubiquitous in the Philippines. The fruits are often used when the thin rind is still green on the outside, and that is the color associated with it. Calamansi or Citrofortunella microcarpa belongs to the Rutaceae family. Calamansi is a popular citrofotunella; this means it is an intergenetic hybrid between the genes of a citrus and Kumquat. Calamansi is known by various names throughout the globe the most popular ones being calamonding, calamondin orange, calamansi, calamandarin, golden lime, kalamunding, kalamansi, Philippine lime, Panama orange, Chinese orange, musk orange and acid orange. Calamansi is widely cultivated in different parts of the world such as Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia and Southern China. This fruit is available throughout the year in Philippines and is mostly found in its unripen green state. This is more of an ornamental tree than fruit bearing tree despite the fact that its fruits are edible. Calamansi has a distinct characteristics of a wing-like appendages on the leaf stalks and white or purplish flowers. With attractive colors making it an eye pleasing ornamental plant the fruit of the calamansi is none the less, shaped similar to small round lime sizing upto 25-35 mm in diameter. The pulp of the fruit is orange in color and has a very thin orange peel when it ripens. Each fruit bears 8 to 12 seeds each (https://www.fruitsinfo.com Retrieved: January 6, 2018).
Calamansi is a fruit that is more than meets the eye. This ornamental fruit holds within many benefits. An ideal remedy for dry cough and cold is a glass of warm water with lime juice and a teaspoonful of honey. The pectin content found in the pulp of the fruit is known to work wonders in lowering blood cholesterol. Citric fruits are known to be rich in Vitamin C, this nutrient prevents decay and loosening of the teeth, dental caries, toothache, bleeding of the gums and fragility of bones. Peptic ulcers can be relieved by the alkaline reaction caused by the citric acid in the system. Key to weight loss is one of the most popularly adopted beauty elixir Fresh juice’ of a lime mixed in a glassful of water and sweetened with honey should be taken every morning on empty stomach in case of obesity. Another beauty hack that can be derived out of this fruit is gently rubbing the peels of the lemon on dry skin for a healthy blemish free skin (https://www.fruitsinfo.com Retrieved: January 6, 2018).
In addition, four common hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic andsinapic acids) were determined in the methanolic extracts of calamansi peel using ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detector. The Philippines calamansi peel contained the highest amount of total phenolic acids.
A phenolic acid is a type of phytochemical called a polyphenol. Other types of polyphenols include flavonoids and stilbenes. The cinnamic acids are more common than the benzoic acids (https://www.verywell.com Retrieved: January 6, 2018). The phenolic compounds 2,6-diiodophenol (2a) and 4-chloro-2,6-diiodophenol (2c) have different toxicity and larvicidal behaviour. The compound 4-chloro-2,6-diiodophenol (2c) showed the highest toxicity for larvae of Ae. aegypti and A. salina, exhibiting higher toxicity than 2,6-diiodophenol (https://file.scirp.org Retrieved: January 6, 2018).
Mosquitoes serve as vector for various tropical and subtropical diseases which cause destructive effects to human. They do not only transmit parasites and pathogens but they also source of allergic reaction that includes local skin and systemic sensitivity. The most common diseases associated with mosquitoes are dengue fever, chikungunya, yellow fever and the worst, dengue hemorrhagic fever where Aedes aegypti is one of the mosquito species responsible for the transmission of these vector borne diseases.
World Health Organization (WHO) stated that about 2/5 of the global human population are currently threaten of dengue and the best way to control the transmission of dengue virus is fight the mosquitoes that cause the disease. Dengue is one of the most significant viral diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti because it afflicts humans worldwide whose symptoms ranging from mild fever to a severe and potentially life threatening hemorrhagic disease. Aedes aegypti is of supreme concern because of its wide distribution and close association with humans. Aedes aegypti is present in heavy polluted areas like Asia, America and some Pacific Islands and infested about 2/3 of the world’s population. The reported dengue cases in the Philippines from January to June 2012 have already reached 32,193 nationwide, 3.8% higher for the same period last year.
Due to the pathogenic diseases and serious harms caused by mosquitoes, controlling them has been the primary subject of several new researches over the past few years. The technique in controlling mosquitoes depends on the larval stages (egg, larvae, pupae, and adult) on target. Mosquito control includes targeting the adult mosquito through spraying chemical insecticides or by killing the mosquito larvae before they emerge into adults via using synthetic larvicides or botanical extracts as an alternative larvicide.
However, the use of synthetic larvicides imposes threats not only to human health but also to the ecosystem because when they are applied into the environment; they may stay on for a very long time or even remain there without end . Synthetic larvicides also disrupt natural biological control systems that sometimes results into a widespread development of resistance (International Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 2016).