AbstractSmart paid. One more thing, the data collected from

AbstractSmart grid is one of the features of
smart city model. It is energy consumption
monitoring and management system. Smart grids are
based on communication between the provider and
consumer. One of the main issues with today’s
outdated grid deal with efficiency. The grid become
overloaded during peak times or seasons. It is also
possible to hack the system, and basically, take free
electricity. By using smart grid consumer and owner
get daily electricity consumption reading and owner
can cut electricity supply remotely through internet if
bill is not paid. One more thing, the data collected
from the smart meters should not be accessed by any
unauthorised entities. In case meter tempering is
happened then owner and consumer get message and
then owner take the action accordingly. Fitting the
circuit on customer’s energy meter, from that energy
consumption data can be acquired. After acquiring of
data, that data can be updated on cloud service, so
that consumer and provider can access that data
through internet. The main part of project is smart
grid meter. When LED in smart meter gives 3200
blinks this means one unit is consumed. Second
feature of this project is one micro switch is fitted in
meter. This is to prevent meter tempering. There is
one hidden switching circuit in that, whenever any
person try to open the meter switch will get popup
and controller send the message to owner and
consumer. Third feature of project is control meter, if
bill is not paid by customer then owner can cut the
meter. Acquiring of data needs human resources, we
can save this critical resource by using smart grid
application.
Keywords—Internet of Things; sensors; smart
grid; smart meter.
I. INTRODUCTION
Internet of Things (IOT) is a concept and a
paradigm that considers pervasive presence in the
environment of a variety of things/objects that
through wireless and wired connections and unique
addressing schemes are able to interact with each
other and cooperate with other things/objects to
create new applications/services and reach common
goals. The goal of the Internet of Things is to enable
things to be connected anytime, anyplace, with
anything and anyone ideally using any path/network
and any service. Internet of Things is a new
revolution of the Internet. Objects make themselves
recognizable and they obtain intelligence by making
or enabling context related decisions thanks to the
fact that they can communicate information about
themselves. They can access information that has
been aggregated by other things, or they can be
components of complex services. Smart cities are
complex environments where several areas of
innovation meet in order to substantially improve
socioeconomic development and quality of life.
The Smart Grid (SG), the intelligent power grid,
could be seen as the largest instantiation of the IOT
network in the next future. The whole power grid
chain, from the energy power plant generation to the
final electricity consumers (houses, building,
factories, public lightning, electric vehicles, smart
appliances, etc.), including transmission and
distribution power networks, will be filled with
intelligence and two-way communication capabilities
to monitor and control the power grid anywhere, at a
fine granularity and a high accuracy. For instance,
smart houses, will be equipped with smart meters and
smart appliances, whereas power generators and
electric transmission and distribution networks will
be equipped with various sensors and actuators. The
aim of the SG is to keep a real-time balance between
energy generation and consumption, by allowing a
fine-grained monitoring and control over the power
chain, thanks to the huge number of the two-way
communicating smart objects (smart meters, smart
appliances, sensors, actuators, etc.). The Internet Of
Things (IOT) will deliver a smarter grid to enable
more information and connectivity throughtout the
infrastructure and to homes. Through the IOT,
consumers, manufacturers and utility providers will
uncover new ways to manage devices and ultimately
conserve resources and save money by using smart
meters, home gateways, smart plugs and connected
appliances.
Why Do We Need a Smart Grid?
Good seldom insinuates that you cant be
better, and in this case, a smart grid can
be much better.
Notwithstanding the naysayers, there are
limitations on most of the energy
resources on Earth, and we are beginning
to better understand that. As such, we are
learning to appreciate the value of better
and more efficiently consume our energy
resources and incorporate sustainable
forms of energy into our lives. Smart
grids can better accommodate these
needs.
International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) – Volume 34 Number 1- April 2016
ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org Page 16
We all want to live in a more
comfortable fashion, but not without
going broke along the way. Smart grids
hold the promise of enabling greater
comfort without requiring greater
expense; at least long term.
Fig 1: Smart grid representation.
There is increasing public awareness about the
changing paradigm of our policy in energy supply,
consumption and infrastructure. For several reasons
future energy supply should no longer be based on
fossil resources. Neither is nuclear energy a future
proof option. Inconsequence future energy supply
needs to be based largely on various renewable
Fig 2: Smart grid connectivity enabling smart home services
resources. Increasingly focus must be directed to
our energy consumption behaviour. Because of its
volatile nature such supply demands an intelligent
and flexible electrical grid which is able to react to
power fluctuations by controlling electrical energy
sources (generation, storage) and sinks (load, storage)
and by suitable reconfiguration. Such functions will
be based on networked intelligent devices
(appliances, micro-generation equipment,
infrastructure, consumer products) and grid
infrastructure elements, largely based on IOT
concepts.
A smart grid is an energy delivery system that
moves from a centrally controlled system, like we
have today, to a more consumer driven, iterative
system relying on bi-directional communication to
constantly adapt and tune the delivery of energy.
II. PROBLEM DEFINITION
1. Avoid the possibility of hacking the system,
and basically, taking free electricity.
2. To prevent meter tempering.
3. Real-time Models and design methods
describing reliable interworking of
heterogeneous systems (e.g.
technical/economical/ social/environmental
systems).
4. To reduce the human efforts, and to cut the
power automatically if the bill is not paid.
III. LITERATURE SURVEY
One year after the past edition of the Clusterbook
2012 it can be clearly stated that the Internet of
Things (IOT) has reached many different players and
gained further recognition. Out of the potential
Internet of Things application areas, Smart Cities
(and regions), Smart Car and mobility, Smart Home
and assisted living, Smart Industries, Public safety,
Energy environmental protection, Agriculture and
Tourism as part of a future IoT Ecosystem have
acquired high attention. In line with this
development, the majority of the governments in
Europe, in Asia, and in the Americas consider now
the Internet of Things as an area of innovation and
growth. Although larger players in some application
areas still do not recognised the potential, many of
them pay high attention or even accelerate the pace
by coining new terms for the IoT and adding
additional components to it. Moreover, end-users in
the private and business domain have nowadays
acquired a significant competence in dealing with
smart devices and networked applications. As the
Internet of Things continues to develop, further
potential is estimated by a combination with related
technology approaches and concepts such as Cloud
computing, Future Internet, Big Data, robotics and
Semantic technologies. The idea is of course not new
as such but becomes now evident as those related
concepts have started to reveal synergies by
combining them.
However, the Internet of Things is still maturing,
in particular due to a number of factors, which limit
the full exploitation of the IOT. Among those factors
the following appear to be most relevant:
No clear approach for the utilisation of unique
identifiers and numbering spaces for various
kinds of persistent and volatile objects at a global
scale.
No accelerated use and further development of
IOT reference architectures.
Less rapid advance in semantic interoperability
for exchanging sensor information in
heterogeneous environments.
Difficulties in developing a clear approach for
enabling innovation, trust and ownership of data
International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) – Volume 34 Number 1- April 2016
ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org Page 17
in the IOT while at the same time respecting
security and privacy in a complex environment.
Difficulties in developing business which
embraces the full potential of the Internet of
Things.
Missing large-scale testing and learning
environments, which both facilitate the
experimentation with complex sensor networks
and stimulate innovation through reflection and
experience.
Overcoming those hurdles would result in a better
exploitation of the Internet of Things potential by a
stronger cross-domain interactivity, increased realworld
awareness and utilisation of an infinite
problem-solving space.
These forward-looking considerations do certainly
convey a slight touch of science fiction, but are
thought to stimulate the exploration of future living
worlds. The overall scope is to create and foster
ecosystems of platforms for connected smart objects,
integrating the future generation of devices, network
technologies, software technologies, interfaces and
other evolving ICT innovations, both for the society
and for people to become pervasive at home, at work
and while on the move.
Fostering of a consistent, interoperable
and accessible Internet of Things across
sectors, including standardisation.
Directing effort and attention to
important societal application areas such
as health and environment, including
focus on low energy consumption.
Offering orientation on security, privacy,
trust and ethical aspects in the scope of
current legislation and development of
robust and future-proof general data
protection rules.
Providing resources like spectrum
allowing pan-European service provision
and removal of barriers such as roaming.
Maintaining the Internet of Things as an
important subject for international
cooperation both for sharing best
practises and developing coherent
strategies.
The Internet of Things continues to arm its
important position in the context of Information and
Communication Technologies and the development
of society. Whereas concepts and basic foundations
have been elaborated and reached maturity, further
efforts are necessary for unleashing the full potential
and federating systems and actors.
IV. HARDWARE ARCHITECTURE
Fig 3: Block Diagram of IOT based smart city
Smart grid is energy consumption monitoring and
management system. The three basics features of
smart grid are:
1. Consumer and owner get clarity of electricity
consumption readings.
2. Owner can cut electricity supply remotely through
internet if dues/bills are not paid.
3. The data collected form smart meters cannot be
access by unauthorized entities. In case energy theft
is happened the owner and consumer get message to
take necessary action.
Block daigram Description:
Basically a circuit will be fitted i.e smart meter in
consumers home so from that we will acquire data
and after acquiring we will upload/update the data on
cloud service so that owner of smart grid (for E.g.
MSEB or Reliance) and customer can access that
data. The smart meter circuit consists of LED which
usually blinks 3200 times so to calculate that impulse
we fix LED which will indicate 1 Unit electricity
consumption for 3200blinks i.e. 3200 impulse =
1KW. To pick the pulses in the circuit we connect
photo detector on meter. The output of this photo
detector will be connected to transistor so that it
amplifies the signal which we obtained from photo
detector. When LED blinks light of LED fall on
photo detector so that amplifier junction will break
,because of light junction breaking will leads to flow
of Leakage current which results into enabling of
Transistor. When transistor is on, the supply goes to
ground which means we get low( 0) in output. When
LED is off photo diode off
as no light falls on photo detector then transistor
becomes o
so supply we get high(1) in output. Means when
LED blinks we get Logic zero pulse. We use
ATMega328 microcontroller in circuit. It is advance
AT 1 series controller and 328 is number of
controller. Microcontroller counts how many pulses
we get that is our unit consumption. Second thing
micro-switch is fixed on meter. One point of microswitch
is connected to the ground and other point is
connected to microcontroller at pin. This all circuit is
International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) – Volume 34 Number 1- April 2016
ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org Page 18
to prevent meter tampering means to detect power
theft. Basically, there is a hidden switch in meter,
whenever any person try to open the meter, the switch
will get pop up and we get logic high in controller pin
and after that controller sends the message to owner
and consumer that meter has been tampered. Both
daily consumption units micro switch data we take it
as input in controller and both these readings are
displayed on LCD display. So because of that we can
check the status of meter. If bill is not paid by the
customer then owners can remotely cut the power
supply PubNub site which is owners site. So relay
contractor is connected in circuit. When theft is
detected we get logic one then relay contractor will
get Open and electricity supply of meter will get cut.
Hardware description:
In circuit, we give 230v supply as AC input to meter.
Input part and output part of meter each have one
phase and one neutral port this output phase wire
connected to load (bulb)
through relay. Relay by default is in close condition.
Circuit starts working when relay is in close
condition. But if relay triggered then relay will get
open and immediately circuit stops working. In meter
circuit, LED gives pulse according to value of load.
On meter Cal means calibration is written. When
LED gives 3200 impulse, means 1 kw-hour unit is get
consumed. Means when LED blinks for 3200 times 1
unit will get consumed. For now to save time we take
1 pulse equal to 1 unit. To catch LED pulse there is
one photodiode is connected next to LED. Signal of
photodiode is very week so transistor (BC549NPN) is
connected near to photodiode to amplify the signal.
Output of collector connected to A0 pin of
microcontroller. So microcontroller count the pulses
from optical sensor which is connected to A0 pin.
Inside the meter there are seals on both sides of
meter, so for meter tempering people give heat to that
seal, so seal will get loose and meter will get open.
By opening the meter screws anyone can temper the
meter and change the meter readings or by adding
one more coil on meter anyone can slowdown the
meter. In our case, inside the meter there is one
switch which is by default in close condition. If
someone trying to open meter, switch will get open
and send the message to owner and user. By this way
user and owner can control meter tampering.
In this circuit switch is connected outside the meter
for better understanding. So in this project this switch
is in normally open condition. When someone press
that switch, switch will get triggered and message
will get sent. So this is a theft switch.
To give power supply to circuit we take same 230volt
supply which flows from meter. By using step down
transformer this 230v supply step down to 12 volt 1
amp. This 12 volt supply is AC supply so we rectify
that supply by using 4 diodes and then filters it using
capacitor then it became 12v DC supply. This diode,
filter, voltage regulator7805, filter of 1f, spike
suppressor of 0.1f , power supply indication LED and
current limiting register make whole power supply
section complete.
Microcontroller ATmega328 want clock, so crystal
oscillator of 16MHZ and 2 capacitor of 22pf are
connected. Using this clock program inside the
microcontroller is executed. Further RESET pin on
board is active low. 1 register is connected to pull up
that pin. Because that pull up it could not by default
get RESET. When supply is get on then by using
software program automatically it will get RESET.
But if anyone want to RESET the circuit, then by
cutting the power supply and again restarting it,
circuit will get RESET. So each time after restarting,
the circuit it will get RESET.
In microcontroller, from A0 to A5 6 analog pins and
0 to 13 total 14 digital pins are there. In this project
there is no analog sensor so 6 analog pins also use as
digital pins. On A0 pin of microcontroller optical
sensor is connected and on A1 pin theft switch is
connected. A2, A3, A4, A5 pins are used to generate
meter number. Meter number is in form of decimal
power number. If 1st switch is on then meter value is
1, if 2nd switch is on then meter value is 2. If both 1st
and 2nd switch are on then value of meter is 3. If all 4
switches are on then meter value is 15. So by making
combinations of these 4 switches meter number will
get created which is between 1 to 15.
On A0 and A1 pin built in UART is there. By using
UART we can make serial communication. Output
from these A0 and A1 pin (optical sensor and theft
sensor output) goes to arduino board. On the arduino
board there is one arduino shield. That arduino shield
receive serial data from microcontroller. Inside the
arduino board one more ATmega328 microcontroller
is there. So in this project there are 2 ATmega328
microcontrollers. 1st microcontroller handle the
project circuit and 2nd microcontroller communicate
with PubNub which is online server. Communication
from microcontroller to arduino board is serial
communication which is in form of Tx and Rx. So
microcontroller send optical sensor data to arduino
shield through Tx wire and arduino shield send data
from PubNub to microcontroller through Rx. On
arduino module Ethernet is connected. This Ethernet
is connected to any nearby router or WiFi module by
configuration process. So microcontroller data goes
on internet through Ethernet and data is updated on
cloud service.
Pin number 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 of microcontroller
connected to LCD display. This LCD display is of
16/2 dimension means 16 column and 2 rows. Preset
is of 10 K is connected to microcontroller to adjust
the brightness of LCD screen. Further output from 9th
and 10th pins of microcontroller goes to transistor.
This is BC549 NPN transistor. This transistor amplify
International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) – Volume 34 Number 1- April 2016
ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org Page 19
the signal and magnetized the coil of relay. Relay is
of 12v which is SPDT means Single Pole Double
Throw relay. If 1st relay is get triggered then load
will cut off. If 2nd relay is triggered then we get
buzzer. Means if any problem is occurred control unit
give the trigger, so because of triggering both relay
get activated and power will cut off.
Fig 4: Circuit Diagram of IOT based smart grid
V. SOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION
Software Applications used are:
1. PubNub: In our project PubNub is owners
(MSEB, Reliance, TATA) site. Basically
PubNub is a global Data Stream Network
(DSN) that makes it easy to develop and
deploy realtime mobile and web apps, using
just two functions (Publish and Subscribe) to
pass data back and forth in under 1/4 second.
PubNub utilizes a Publish/Subscribe model
for realtime data streaming and device
signaling and supports all of the capabilities
of WebSockets, Socket.IO, Data Channel
and other streaming protocols. PubNub
provides SDKs for over 70 different
programming languages and environments
including JavaScript, iOS, and Android, as
well as JavaScript frameworks such as
AngularJS, Ember.js, and Backbone.js.
PubNub also provides client libraries for
board platforms including Raspberry Pi,
Arduino, Texas Instruments, and Microchip.
2. Freeboard.io: In our project Freeboard is
client/customers site. Freeboard is a turn-key
HTML-based “engine” for dashboards.
Besides a nice looking layout engine, it
provides a plugin architecture for creating
data sources (which fetch data) and widgets
(which display data) freeboard then does all
the work to connect the two together.
Another feature of freeboard is its ability to
run entirely in the browser as a single-page
static web app without the need for a server.
The feature makes it extremely attractive as
a front-end for embedded devices which
may have limited ability to serve complex
and dynamic web pages.
The overview of these websites are as follows:
Fig 5: PubNub Website.
Fig 6: Freeboard.io Website.
VI. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
Advantages:
More efficient transmission of electricity.
Quicker restoration of electricity after power
disturbances.
Reduced operations and management costs
for utilities, and ultimately lower power
costs for consumers.
Time saving technology.
Tamper detection to reduce electricity theft.
Energy saving robust and reliable smart
sensors/actuators.
Absolutely safe and secure communication
with elements at the network edge.
Disadvantages:
Exposure of sensitive customer data.
Connectivity to untrustworthy partners that
cannot be selected.
Exposure of critical infrastructure due to
connectivity reasons.
International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) – Volume 34 Number 1- April 2016
ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org Page 20
Introducing malicious software,
compromised hardware could result in
denial of service or security threats.
Biggest concern: Privacy and Security.
Some types of meters can be hacked.
VII. CONCLUSION
A revolution in energy domain is underway, namely
the Smart Grid. Smart Grid is owner as well as user
friendly technology. User can check daily
consumption from any location using internet. Owner
can control customer meter from control unit. Smart
grid represents one of the most promising and
prominent internet of things applications. More
efficient transmission of electricity. Quicker
restoration of electricity after power disturbances.
Reduced operations and management costs for
utilities, and ultimately lower power costs for
consumers. Time saving technology. Control on
Meter tempering.
REFERENCES
1 Dr. Ovidiu Vermesan and Dr. Peter Friess,”Internet of Things
Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda”in Internet of
Things:Converging Technologies for Smart Environments
and Integrated Ecosystems,River
Publishers,Denmark,2013,pp.9-30.
2 Rajiv .K. Bhatia and Varsha Bodade,”Smart Grid Security
and Privacy: Challenges, Literature Survey and
Issues”,International Journal of
Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software
Engineering,Volume 4, Issue 1, January 2014.
3 Stamatis Karnouskos,”The cooperative Internet of Things
enabled Smart Grid”,SAP Research,Vincenz-PriessnitzStrasse
1, D-76131, Karlsruhe, Germany,2013.
4 David Chaves,Alexandre Pellitero and Daniel
Garcia,”Providing IoT Services in Smart Cities through
Dynamic Augmented Reality Markers”,sensors,ISSN1424-
8220,Published:3July2015
5 V. Dehalwar, R. K. Baghel, M. Kolhe. Multi-Agent based
Public Key Infrastructure for Smart Grid, The 7th
International Conference on Computer Science & Education
(ICCSE 2012) July, 2012. Melbourne, Australia.