A prevalence study was conducted In 2009 in Surat
in Gujarat. In this study Anthropometric measurements were taken in 176 in
rural and 213 in urban adolescent children from government schools of Surat
District & Surat City, respectively. These study prevalence of obesity
increased significantly from 12.8% in rural to 14.6% in urban (p<0.01), whereas underweight decline from 13.6% to 4.6% (p<0.001). There was a significantly higher risk of being overweight and obesity in urban than rural, after adjustment for gender and age factor. Urban Males had significantly higher increase in prevalence and risk of being overweight and obese. 2 A cross sectional study was conducted at Kanchipuram district, Tamil Nadu in 2012. This study included 458 medical students, with measurements of anthropometry and waist circumference and also recording of blood pressure. Out of 500 students, 458 (92%) participated in the study. Among them 54% and 46% were males and females respectively. The prevalence of overweight was 24.3% and the prevalence of obesity was 8.6% according to WHO guidelines. Obese and overweight individuals had significant family history. Girls had significant increased and substantial risk for co morbid conditions than boys. Frequency of eating highly fatty food is high among obese & overweight individuals when compared to both normal and underweight students. Overweight and obese individuals were spending sedentary life style. The prevalence of high systolic and diastolic blood pressure was significant among over weight and obese individuals. 3 Another Prevalence study was conducted in Mumbai. In this study 300 medical students were enrolled in 2009. Majorities (52%) were in the group of age 18-20% was males and 39% were female. 25% were day students and 75% were hostellers. When assessed about knowledge about obesity, 100% students scored 50% and more than that. Prevalence of overweight and obesity according to WHO classification was 14.7% and 3% respectively and according to Asia- Pacific guidelines it was 9.3% and 18.4% respectively. 4 A cross-sectional study was conducted in Bhavnagar, among 130, 1st year medical students in 2013. Data were taken face-to-face interview by using a predesigned and pre structured questionnaire. Measurement of Anthropometric such as weight and height were measured and calculate body mass index (BMI). The prevalence of obesity was 11.53% in these study population. It was higher among boys compared with girl's students and higher among socio-economical class II (73.33%). There were 7.7% person among study population with sedentary life- style, and 34.6% respondents did not have any knowledge about obesity and BMI. This study concluded that prevalence of obesity was 11.53% among first-year medical students of Government Medical College, Bhavnagar. The prevalence of obesity was higher among boys compared with girls students and higher among socio-economical class II. 5 A prevalence study was conducted on undergraduate students of Shyam Shah Medical College, Rewa, Central India in 2015. All undergraduate medical students were enrolled from 2nd year to Internship, they were interviewed by predesigned and pretested questionnaire. Out of a total 280 medical students, 186 were boys and 94 were girls. It was found that in males 69.89% were normal weight, 21.5% were over-weight, and 8.6% were obese. Similarly, among females 56.38% were normal weight, 31.91% were over-weight, and 11.70% were obese. 6 A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted out of 350 medical students of a Medical college in Trivandrum, Kerala. in 2013, by using a pretested proforma and anthropometric measurements. The overall prevalence of obesity among medical students was 25.71% (95% CI, 21.75-29.83) and overweight was 24.57%. 7 A prevalence study was conducted in Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute in Tamil Nadu, india. Among undergraduate Medical students in 2016. The study was carried out on 50 subjects in the age group of 20-25 years old of both male (25) and female (25) students. Those who had developed overweight history involving inactivity, stress, unhealthy diet, familial, appetite, sleep pattern, and metabolic disorder, also the body mass index (BMI) was calculated for the respective medical students. The occurrence of obesity as a result of high-calorie diet, inactivity, and all the above-mentioned conditions will enhance the complications of obesity. This study revealed that the complications were highly due to unhealthy diet for male and inactivity for female students. Hence, the predominance of obesity in male medical students was found out to be 2.5% and that of overweight was 4%. The overall prevalence was 6.5%, whereas the predominance of obesity in female medicos was found out to be 2% and that of overweight was 4.25 %. Overall prevalence was 6.25% . 8 A school based prevalence study was carried out among school children in the age group of 10 – 16 years, from Udupi district of Karnataka state, India in 2009. Cluster of children studying in grade 6th to 9th standard from selected schools and in the age group of 10 – 16 years were selected for anthropometric assessment. Total of 2,938 children were included in the study. Result showed that 7% of children were overweight and 5% were obese. The Pearson Correlation computed between BMI and waist circumference showed a positive ( r = 0.763, p =<0.0001) relationship between BMI and waist circumference. The study concluded that childhood obesity prevalence is increasing among children. Higher BMI was found among children in the age of 10 – 12 years and among girls than the boys. BMI of children increases the waist circumference also increases. 9 A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted in MM Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Mullana, Ambala, Haryana, India in 2015. All the regular male and female students. Total of 130 students out of 150 first MBBS Students participated in the study. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect and record information on age, sex, height in meters, and weight in kilograms, of each subject. Among the 130 students, the mean + SD height of the students was 1.67 + 0.09 m, while the mean weight was 66.61 + SD 12.71 kg and the mean BMI 23.54 + SD 3.09 kg/m2. Normal BMI was observed in 73.1% students, while 22.3% students were overweight, 3.1% obese, and only, 1.5% underweight. Overweight and obesity were significantly more in male than female students. 10 A university based cross-sectional study was conducted in Vadodara, Gujarat in 2013 . Data was collected through convenient sampling technique by using self-administered questionnaire followed by anthropometric measurement. Body Mass Index (BMI) of 138 first year medical students was assessed. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, mean blood pressure, pulse rate and arterial oxygen saturation were measured. In comparison to the students with normal BMI, students with BMI>25kg/m2 (N=49) showed significantly high blood pressure indices. Dietary
habits and family history of cardiovascular diseases were also noted. Highly
significant association of high BMI was found with elevated blood pressure (X2=7.4042,
p<0.001) and presence of family history of CVD (X2=9.8625, p<0.001). BMI was negatively correlated with SPO2 (r= -0.0504, p<0.05) and pulse rate, while positively correlated with SBP (r=0.2736) and DBP (r=0.0275). 11 International A institution based cross sectional study was conducted at Islamabad Medical and Dental College, Islamabad, in 2014. A total of 149 students from 1st year to final year MBBS were included in the study. In all these participants' body weight and height were measured and calculated body mass index (BMI) values. Similarly central obesity was calculated on the basis of waist to hip ratio and waist to height ratio. Data was collected on the basis of a pre designed proforma and was entered on SPSS version 16 for evaluation. The mean age of participants was 21.2 years ±1.387 SD. Among these 20 % (30) were males and 80% (119) were female participants. The mean weight was 57.35 kg + 12.528 SD. The mean height was noted to be 165.0 cm +8.750 SD. In the study sample, the mean BMI was 20.86 ± 4.481 SD. About 59.7% subjects under study had normal weight, 28.9% were under weight, 9.4% over weight while 2.0% obese. Regarding waist circumference, the mean value was 75.249+10.553 SD. Based on waist to hip ratio, 31.5% had central obesity and on the basis of waist to height ratio, it was found that 12.8% had central obesity. 12 International A cross sectional study was conducted in low-income and middle- income countries as well as af?uent countries. Parents/guardians of children aged 6–7 years completed questionnaires which included questions about their children's asthma and allergies, fast-food consumption, height and weight. Adolescents aged 13–14 completed the same questionnaire. The questionnaire asked "In the past 12 months, how often on average did you (your child) eat fast-food/burgers?" The responses were infrequent (never/only occasionally), frequent (once/ twice a week) or very frequent (three or more times per week). A general linear mixed model was used to determine the association between BMI and fast-food consumption, adjusting for Gross National Income per capita by country, measurement type (whether heights/weights were reported or measured), age and sex. Results: 72 900 children (17 countries) and 199 135 adolescents (36 countries) provided data. Frequent and very frequent fast-food consumption was reported in 23% and 4% of children, and 39% and 13% of adolescents, respectively. Children in the frequent and very frequent groups had a BMI that was 0.15 and 0.22 kg/m2 higher than those in the infrequent group (p<0.001). Male adolescents in the frequent and very frequent groups had a BMI that was 0.14 and 0.28 kg/m2 lower than those in the infrequent group (p<0.001). Female adolescents in the frequent and very frequent groups had a BMI that was 0.19 kg/m2 lower than those in the infrequent group (p<0.001). 13 International Another cross-sectional study was conducted in Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi Pakistan. Body weight and height were measured and body mass index (BMI) values were calculated by dividing weight with (height). Overweight and obesity were defined using WHO international standard BMI cut-offs. The overall prevalence of underweight students was 29.9% out of which 9.6% fell under the category of severely underweight (BMI of < 16.5). In overweight category there were 8%. The frequency of students falling in Obese Class I, II & III was 2.7%, 0.6% & 0% respectively. It was found that more female students compared to male students were underweight. In the overweight and obese categories there was a preponderance of male students. A positive correlation was found between perception of obesity amongst parents and overweight obese students. 14 A prevalence study was conducted SKIMS Medical college, Shrinagar in 2013. The study participents consisted of all 100 first year MBBS students. Body weight and height of 100 first year MBBS students measured and body mass index (BMI) values were calculated by dividing weight with (height). Under weight, normal weight, overweight and obesity were defined using WHO international standard BMI cut-offs. Additional information including gender and age were obtained using a structured proforma. Mean ± standard deviation were calculated. Data was presented in the form of graphs and described in numbers and percentages.The First year MBBS students were in the age group of 18 -22 years and male: female was in a ratio of 1:1.(i.e;50 males & 50 females). The mean height of the male students was 173.6 cms (SD= 5.0) and females 156. 24 cms (SD= 7. 1). The mean weight of the Male students was 63.5 kg (SD=7.3); and females 56.8 kg (SD=7.6). Overall, 81% of students were within the normal weight range. Around 10% males and 20% female students were overweight. Obesity was found only in 1% of students. The 3% students were underweight and included all the male students. 15 International Another prevalence study was conducted in São Francisco do Conde, Bahia State, Brasil. This study was to assess the relation- ship between eating patterns and body mass index (BMI) in children and adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study of 1,247 male and female respondents, aged between 6 and 12, from public elementary schools. BMI was used to analyze the children's nutritional status. Food consumption frequencies, in addition to demographic and so- cioeconomic information, were collected for each participant. Dietary patterns were identified through a factor analysis. The prevalence of over- weight and obesity was 17.3% (10.2% overweight and 7.1% obese). Two eating patterns, "obesogenic" and "prudent", were identified. The former is characterized by sweets and sugars, typical Brazilian dishes, pastries, fast food, oils, milk, cereals, cakes, and sauces, and was positively associated with increased BMI (ßi = 0.244; p = 0.018). An "obesogenic" dietary pattern was associated with increased BMI. 16 International Another cross-sectional study was conducted in Isfahan, Iran in2012 among 140 Iranian adolescents selected by the use of systematic cluster random sampling. Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Diet quality was de?ned based on energy density and nutrient adequacy ratios (NARs). Those in top quartile of fast food intake consumed more energy-dense diets than those in the bottom quartile (P = 0.022). High intakes of fast foods were signi?cantly associated with overweight (top quartile: 40% versus bottom quartile: 0%, P =0.0001) and obesity (11.4%versus 2.9%, P =0.0001).Conclusion was Fast food consumption is associated with poor diet quality and high prevalence of overweight and obesity among Isfahani adolescents. 18 International A cross sectional was conducted in King Faisal University Saudi Arabia in 2014. Among university students to determine the association between fast food consumption and body weight. A total 276 female students aged 18 to 25 years old and usually ate fast food from different colleges in King Faisal University. The prevalence of obesity/overweight was 29.7%. A total 130 (47.1%) students reported eating fast food two or more time per week and the main reasons for the consumption were lack of cooking skills. Eighty percent of the students never read the nutritional information at the fast food restaurant and only 5% of the students ordered healthier items always or most of the time. A significant correlation between BMI and frequency of consumption (r = 0.125; p = 0.05) was observed and the Logistic Regression model found obesity/overweight to be significantly associated with frequency of fast food consumption for students going two or more times per week (OR 3.072; 95% CI 1.107-8.523). Increase awareness about healthy choices of fast food by health education programs are recommended to promote healthy lifestyles and dietary habits among university students 19 International Kant and Graubard, Putnam et al. was analyzed in this study in New York, USA in 2016 The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between the average frequencies of eating a meal from a fast- food restaurant per week and Body Mass Index (BMI). Our analysis based on a nationwide survey of Americans indicates that a meal from a fast food restaurant per week, on an average, is associated with an increase of BMI of 0.16 or 0.17 after adjusting for race, gender, education, marital status, age and income. However, our analysis does not find a similar effect for meals eaten from any other restaurant. Our analysis also finds that the higher is a person's BMI, the more importance a person assigns to the cause of his obesity being the kinds of foods marketed in restaurants and grocery stores. 20 International A cross-sectional study was conducted among the university students of Malaysia in 2015. Convenient sampling was used. A self-reported questionnaire was used to gather data on weight, height and their dietary habits. Body Mass Index was calculated from weight and height. Results were expressed as percentages. 372 students participated in the survey. Among them, 43.5% were medical students whereas 56.5% were non- medical students. Majority of the participants 255 (68.5%) had normal body mass index, 68 (18.2%) were underweight, while 49 (13.6%) were overweight and obese. Breakfast and supper intake, diet content, favorite beverage and knowledge of balanced diet were significantly associated between different faculties (p<0.05). While for the association between dietary habits and BMI, only snack intake, favorite beverage and daily water intake showed significant association. The results of this study highlighted the need of educating university students regarding good dietary habits. Clinicians and dietitians should also consider factors like genetic contributors and metabolic conditions along with dietary habits in the management of obesity among university students.